Join Tonight’s Call. $2.00 A Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America.

Reader ‘s Forum–from Nevada to the Bronx to Florida

We wrap up our Reader’s Forum this afternoon with four submissions. One from Catana Barnes, the President of Independent Voters of Nevada, two from college students at  Bronx Community College and a note from an independent activist in Florida.

I hope that you will join us this evening at 7 pm EST for our conversation with co-author of $2.00 a Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America, Kathryn Edin.

TONIGHT @ 7 pm EST

Politics for the People Conference Call

With Kathyrn Edin, co-author of

$2.00 a Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America

Join the Conversation

641-715-3605 and passcode 767775#

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CATANA BARNES

Kathryn J. Edin and H. Luke Shaffer’s $2.00 A Day Living on Almost Nothing in America is one of the most personally relatable books I have ever read. As I read through chapters 1 and 2, I felt as though I was reading through a diary of my own life. Chapter 2, Perilous

catana barnes speakingWork, affected me so much it was suggested that I not finish reading the book. I will, of course, finish reading the book with great anticipation and, unfortunately, with great sadness. This is a book that can be of comfort and support to those, like myself, who have had to survive on little to nothing and a book that can provide great insight to those who have never had to deal with this kind of struggle. I absolutely believe this book can and will change the way people, in the United State and the /world, understand and view poverty in the United States; a country that proclaims its economic prowess.
Catana Barnes is the founder and President of Independent Voters of Nevada.

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CLAUDIA ARROYO

My name is Claudia Arroyo. I am a Full Time Student from Bronx Community College and I am majoring in Psychology. I learned about your work from my Psychology professor Rafael Mendez. I am submitting my thoughts and questions about the writing $2 A Day on Extreme Poverty in America and will be attending the conference call on Sunday at 7PM.

Upon Reading $2 A Day it is interesting to know how close to home many aspects of this book touch upon. Either we have experienced many of these events ourselves or we know somebody who has lived through it or is going through it currently. There claudia arroyois so much struggle and trauma that the individuals mentioned in the story and those who encounter these challenges face everyday and must continue to live with it because it has shaped who they are. What stood out a lot to me was the story of Jennifer and her children. When living with family members it still wasn’t a positive or safe environment for her children. Little did she know the impact that this had for them, especially her son who suddenly became very aggressive and violent to the point where he harmed his sister. Even then his sister also suffered being molested by one of her own family members which forced Jennifer to flee with her kids to somewhere else she could call “home”, although it is difficult to consider a place home, when it isn’t yours and there is no stable settlement. With this we see difficulties of finding places to safely call home, especially with ones own family, they are the ones which can hurt you the most or even abandon you in your time of need. But because these events do have an influence to shape who we are, they certainly are not what officially determines the person we can be, as humans we are dynamic and constantly changing and have the ability to adapt and overcome.

My question to you is, yes it is already difficult to live in the U.S, especially in major cities like New York or Los Angeles, but how much more does the difficulty increase of sustainably living here in the U.S as a person of color, someone who is hispanic/latinx, or even outside of the U.S?

Thank you.

Sincerely, Claudia Arroyo

***

MADELINE MANZUETA

    My name is Madeline Manzueta and I am a student at Bronx Community College and here is my comment on the story.
    Poverty is something that is overlooked in this country. Congress doesn’t really care about the poor and their struggles. We see this in chapter 3, as Jennifer talks about her not being able to afford such a place like the one in which her aunt was letting her stay. I can relate to Jennifer because it is very expensive to live. In the Bronx a one bedroom apartment is now going for 1,400 which is impossible for someone with a minimum wage job to afford. They now have programs offering rent controlled housing for what they call “those with low income.” In order to qualify for these apartments you must at least have an income of about 16,000. The average poor person barely even has an income of 5,000 so how do they expect for us to be able to afford these places?

***

ASHLEY BRUNO

I just started the last chapter of this book and I am only now starting to see the organized

Ashley Bruno

outlook and commentary on what needs to be done to cure the “disease” of poverty, in addition to accepting the sad symptoms. With 20 pages left, I remember when I was only 20 pages in, still then naive to the wrenching reality of modern day poverty in America and how it would be illustrated in this writing. I really believed I would be reading a how-to-guide on living on almost nothing, as if there was an underground network of people administering tips and lifestyle advice on getting it done, against all odds, without criminal and dangerous activity and/or total dependence on an ultimately unalleviating and traumatizing welfare system.  I am glad to have read this book and been given a reminder, yet again, of what the collective mind set and experience is of the people who aren’t making it, where the cycle of poverty is like a chain that seems to be unbroken, as the closest thing to direct slavery, and actually still is in many ways, especially mentally.

The last few years, since I joined this network of direct urban humanitarianism and canvassed low-income housing buildings advocating for open primaries, I have felt the need to understand better the communities that are suffering the most, and why,  eliminating the “us and them” and completely eliminating the pursuit of “success” in a capitalist driven society that aims to keep the rich-rich, and the poor and ethnic in a box to provide for cheap labor, control, and pocketed subsidies, made on people, that should be going to the programs and the people themselves. The money exists! The gap, margin, and total imbalance in our demographic economy is so extreme, the outlook has become bleak! There are so many people caught in this cycle and they keep procreating in the most terrible conditions. This isn’t yesterday’s “third-world” problem, and this is not a television show. This is today and now. These family stories are just a few of the endless situations going on and all the people suffering, fearing being out in the divided world today, yet unsafe at home, or the bare survival of one.

I am truly amazed by those who are courageous enough to get involved and try to take these issues on, for I have made no difference and was starting to feel like I just can’t. I think of the serenity prayer. “God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, the courage to change the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference.” I want to focus on that last chapter. I want it to expand. I believe that together we can create the how to guide, because essentially we need to.

This book is definitely not boring, somewhere in between a dramatic yet disturbing lifetime movie and an interview with the real life person behind the door of the NYC Projects buildings the day you stop in and say, “can you sign this petition if you believe in positive change and a fair system?”, wondering how many people live in there and why it smells like that.  I will aim to make the conference call, but I should be working tomorrow. If I change that, I will hear you all on the call. Otherwise you know you will hear from me; I appreciate this listen and learn.

Ashley Bruno is a volunteer with Independent Voting and Open Primaries.

***

SAGE SEPULVEDA

What I’ve been thinking ever since I read this chapter is that while a lot of operations are trying to help families in poverty even when it’s rather difficult, there are at least a few operations that make things worse for these families. Poor people may not have hygiene because they weren’t properly taught by their families or that there wasn’t enough IMG_0286water. Families may go into poverty because the housing costs are too much for them to handle. When I read this chapter, it makes me think of a similar problem is happening in all apartments in the Bronx, especially in the South Bronx, because families will lose their apartments because of housing. I think it was an amazing decision for Kathryn J. Edin and H. Luke Shaefer to write how the family, especially Jennifer, will help Kaitlin to cope with the trauma of being sexually molested by Jose, since it shows that even or especially in dark times, some families can still support each other, since not all of them do. It kind of seems like people of poverty are victims of abuse because they’re easy targets. Why are poor people more likely to be subjected to physical, mental, and sexual abuse than people who aren’t in poverty?

Sage Sepulveda is a college student at Bronx Community College.

 

 

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New Selection–Chosen by You

Thanks for voting and selecting our next book club selection.

AMAZON | BARNES & NOBLE | BOOKS-A-MILLION | INDIEBOUND | APPLE | KOBO | SONY

Written by Kathryn J. Edin and H. Luke Shaefer

 

From the $2.00 A Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America website:

“Jessica Compton’s family of four would have no income if she didn’t donate plasma twice a week at her local donation center in Tennessee. Modonna Harris and her teenage daughter Brianna, in Chicago, have gone for days with nothing to eat other than spoiled milk.

After two decades of groundbreaking research on American poverty, Kathryn Edin noticed something she hadn’t seen before — households surviving on virtually no cash income. Edin, whose deep examination of her subjects’ lives has “turned sociology upside down” (Mother Jones), teamed with Luke Shaefer, an expert on surveys of the incomes of the poor. The two made a surprising discovery: the number of American families living on $2.00 per person, per day, has skyrocketed to one and a half million American households, including about three million children.

But the fuller story remained to be told. Where do these families live? How did they get so desperately poor? What do they do to survive? In search of answers, Edin and Shaefer traveled across the country to speak with families living in this extreme poverty. Through the book’s many compelling profiles, moving and startling answers emerge: a low-wage labor market that increasingly fails to deliver a living wage, and a growing but hidden landscape of survival strategies among America’s extreme poor. Not just a powerful exposé, $2.00 a Day delivers new evidence and new ideas to our national debate on income inequality.”

You can get your copy at Amazon, your local bookseller or library.

The book is riveting and paints the disturbing picture of growing poverty in American post the “welfare reforms” that started in the Clinton era.

Join in our conversation on line…

And join us when we welcome Kathryn Edin

To our Politics for the People Conference Call       

Sunday, December 3rd at 7 pm EST

Image result for kathryn edin johns hopkins

Kathryn J. Edin

 

RATF**KED

Our new selection is RATF**KED: The True Story Behind The Secret Plan to Steal America’s Democracy, by David Daley.

The book outlines in detail the plan hatched by the Republican Party after the 2008 election of President Obama to take control of key state legislatures in 2010 in order to be able to control the redistricting process.  As the author says in the introduction to the book:

This book is not an argument for Democratic control of Congress. Nor is it an apologia for a mushy, split-the-difference centrism, nor a history of the Voting Rights Act or the various Supreme Court cases which have brought us here. Those important stories have been well told by brilliant reporters and scholars. Rather, this is the story of how one election tilted our democracy in unforeseen ways, for the unforeseeable future. It is the story of how, in Karl Rove’s words, when you draw the lines, you make the rules. It is an argument that when our democratic institutions become separated from the popular will, they cease to be effective and democratic.”

 

From the KIRKUS REVIEW:

An alarming study of the GOP’s redrawing of the American political map across the country.

According to Salon editor-in-chief Daley, while Democrats were celebrating President Barack Obama’s victory in 2008, they took their eyes off the important state legislatures, especially in key swing states. Subsequently, the defeated Republicans were already hatching nefarious plans to turn the “disaster into legislative majorities so unbreakable, so impregnable, that none of the outcomes are in doubt until after the 2020 census.” According to law, every state redraws its district lines every 10 years, after the census. Both parties use gerrymandering—named after Massachusetts governor Elbridge Gerry, who redrew a state Senate map in 1812 so skewed it looked like a salamander—to their advantage, but with wildly more sophisticated mapping abilities, gerrymandering has become a “more lethal weapon.” Republican strategists initiated the Republican State Leadership Committee in order to raise millions of dollars for the Redistricting Majority Project, REDMAP, which would indicate where the money should be spent in order to bolster Republican candidates in Democratic-controlled state legislatures from Pennsylvania to North Carolina to Michigan to Wisconsin, flip control of the chamber, lock in redistricting, and thus control Congress for the next decade. This political “dirty deed done dirt cheap” is called “ratfucking,” as designated by Edmund Wilson in the 1920s and used by Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein during the Watergate scandal. Indeed, this is just what happened after the midterm election of 2010, as the GOP captured 63 seats in the House of Representatives and 680 new seats in the state legislatures. Daley takes on each significant state race in turn and notes that despite the country’s pulling more center-left on many issues, the far right is going to be calling the shots until 2020. The author looks at the masterminds behind the strategy and the mapmaking technology as well as the roles of restrictive voting rights laws, “dark money,” and voter turnout.

A chilling intimation of the growing entrenchment of partisan politics.

 

***

You can pick up a copy of RATF**KED through Amazon, Barnes and Noble, and most local booksellers. The book is available in hard cover, paperback, and audiobook.

I think you will find the book compelling. I am looking forward to our exploration over the next several week.

Conference Call with David Daley

Author of RATF**KED

Sunday, June 4th at 7 pm EST

Call: 641-715-3605
Pass code: 767775#

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Letter to Margaret Sanger

From Juliana Francisco

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Juliana marching in the 2016 African American Day Parade, Harlem

Thank you, Mrs. Sanger.

I’m learning your story now and I need to thank you for everything you did. I wanted to let you know that your courage and determination has inspired me and that you have saved so many women that you will never know – myself included.

I also need to apologize to you. I judged you before I even learned your story. I demanded perfection from you because of my anger at society – and at myself. I went into the reading expecting to thump my nose up at this outdated woman who fought for women only like herself and ignored the plight of other less fortunate women but I was wrong. As I read on I found a sister.

Growing up I was a little woman rebel too. I was raised in a conservative Catholic household in a society which largely was not as progressive as it pretended. As hard as it must have been for you to have an openly atheist father and be teased as the devil’s children I think in a way it was a blessing. You were taught to question society early. As a little girl, I was not encouraged to question society or the church. When I look back on my earliest years, I feel intense heartache because I believed in everything I was told I should be as a girl and what they were projecting for me to be as a woman.

I had a much smaller family than you – it was just my mom, my two brothers and myself. My mom was always there for us and I praise her for all the sacrifices and hardships she endured to raise us. I no longer blame her for what she couldn’t control. In the last months of your mother’s life you tried to get her to confess her regrets. “I wanted her to say that if she’d had her choice, as the women on the hill did, if my father believed in French letters as fervently as he did in the single tax and socialism, she would not have spent her life populating the world and cleaning up after it.” [page 15] When your mother finally passed away, as you, your siblings and your father stood around mourning you compared it to vultures around carrion. This visual shook me and I openly wept on the subway. I understand now that my mother, even though she was so encouraging of me and so loving, was not taught to question her society or the church, which gave comfort and meaning to her sacrifice. She was only doing what she thought was best for me. I’ve made peace now but as a teen when I finally started questioning everything I was furious with her. Anger born out of insecurity. I was desperately lonely at that age and I wanted someone, anyone to love me – to “fix” me. But I, like you, never wanted to marry. I knew it was a trap. As much as I longed to be loved, I knew I would just end up forced to have children and abandon all my hopes and dreams and passion because of what was expected of me as a woman – something I was ardently rebelling against. I was also angry at myself for being born and preventing my mother from living the life she wanted – or at least the life I decided she must have wanted.

By this age, I was suffocating under all the pressures and expectations of “womanhood”. I didn’t want to end up like all the women I knew – imprisoned at home, caring for 2 or 3 or 5 children, married to a husband that was always cheating and never there. I wanted to travel and have adventures and create art and change the world and I knew that the women in my life must have felt the same way when they were my age only to be imprisoned by husbands and children and “womanhood”. At the same time, I had internalized so much shame and misogyny. At some level, I must have still believed in everything my upbringing taught me a woman should be. I was terribly lonely and depressed at that age. As uncomfortable as it is for me to admit now, I think a way I elevated myself over my peers, whom I still resented for their taunting and for not liking me, was that I was “pure”. I was a virgin and I wasn’t having children in high school like some of the other girls. I’m so embarrassed by this now. Sure, I had begun questioning society, the church, and gender roles but I couldn’t bring myself to reject the patriarchal myth of “virginity” and “purity” because, in a way, it made me feel some self-worth at a time when I felt completely worthless.

However, you saved me, Margaret. Planned Parenthood was the catalyst that helped me unlearn all the bullshit I was taught. I still remember it – I was around 15 and was learning about politics. Unfortunately, the men in power nowadays don’t really care about women’s rights, just like when they were indifferent when you were alive, but I digress. I was learning that Planned Parenthood was under attack but I didn’t even know what Planned Parenthood was. I went to their website and, of course, I was scandalized! Sexual health?! They’re encouraging promiscuity?? In teenagers?!?!

As I kept reading I LEARNED SO MUCH! I never had sex education in school and my mom never spoke to me about sex. Planned Parenthood taught me everything about women’s health from condoms, to birth control, to body image. This sent me on an internet rabbit hole where I learned about feminism and woman’s rights. This will sound dramatic (I was 15 after all) but I felt like Giordano Bruno pulling up the curtain of the perceived end of the universe and soaring into the limitless universe in front of him. Suddenly nothing was sacred and my possibilities were infinite and no longer confined to my gender. I didn’t have to be a wife or a mother, pure or refined, sexy or pretty, or anything I was taught. I didn’t have all the answers at the time and I still don’t but I was finally unlearning what I was taught. I have you to thank for this. All your hard work and determination paid off. It WAS worth it! How sad it is that you would never live to truly see what you left behind.

I feel a deep kinship with you while reading your story. Like you I grew up very poor. I was teased for showing up with holes in my clothes and for wearing the same clothes from last year which I had already outgrown. I remember missing meals and coming home from school to find the lights turned off and the threat of eviction was always present. I’ll never forget it and you never forgot what it was like to be poor either. You fought hard for poor women, even the ones who didn’t look like you. When the wealthy suffragettes you were trying to bring onto the cause disparaged poor women for having so many children and implied they were daft for not caring about suffrage because of the other pressing issues in their lives you stood up for poor women and you never backed down.

I admit, without doing my research I thought you were like those wealthy suffragettes who didn’t care for the poor or for women of color and for that I apologize. You did fight for all women. You opened clinics in Harlem to help poor black women and in Brownsville to help the poor Jewish women and anyone who came by asking for help. My obsession with knowing and being right and demanding perfection from myself and my predecessors in the fight for social justice led me to disparage you and I was also influenced by the propaganda machine against you. People still twist your legacy and say you wanted to exterminate African-Americans and Jewish people through birth control and without doing my research I believed this. It was easy for me to believe this because, in my opinion, middle-class white feminism still doesn’t listen to poor women or women of color. Younger intersectional feminists and womanists are frequently ignored by them and I think we vilify one another. It’s complicated but at any rate I’m glad I learned the real Margaret Sanger. You weren’t perfect, you hurt your children and Bill but you had good intentions and I at least think you did the right thing. I’m not excusing everything. I’m still upset that you left your children suddenly without even saying goodbye but as an activist I understand your single-minded drive for your cause.

Reading your story has given me so much perspective about the fight for women’s rights and what it means to be an activist who courageously goes against society and the law even if it means going to prison like you, and Ethel did. As I mentioned I am an activist. I work for structural political reform to ensure that everyone’s voice is heard. I’ve always cared deeply for social justice and women’s rights and I think fixing the political system is the best way for me to help the cause. As I’m writing this a racist, sexist president is being sworn in who’s vice president and cabinet members openly oppose women’s rights, gay rights, racial equality etc. I, however, am not despairing. I know that the work I’m doing is important because it will ensure that the people are heard and not the special interests. My activism is how I express my love for humanity and how I can help others. I don’t know what these next four years will be like but I do know that I will work hard for what I believe in and to help others. I’m reminded of you when Anita Block asked you to step in and lecture a crowd on the ballot for women and you didn’t feel you were an authority on this issue or that you knew enough to do so. Instead you spoke about women’s health and taught what every woman should know. This is so inspiring. I’m still developing my voice as an activist and will always be. It really struck me that instead of going through the motions and lecturing about something you didn’t really get you spoke from the heart and lectured about something you were so passionate about. You didn’t need to be perfect. The work you did transcended any of that.

I think my biggest takeaway from your story is to stop adhering to the illusion of perfection. I will never be perfect and I mustn’t let the fear of making mistakes stop me from my activism or from living my life. So once again, I thank you, Mrs. Sanger, for the wonderful work you did. Thank you for educating me and inspiring me. I celebrate your life and all that you accomplished. Tomorrow I will be marching with hundreds of thousands of people around the country who are swearing to uphold women’s rights in the face of adversity and you are a tremendous reason we can do this today. It’s now up to us to continue your legacy and fight for your cause and I’m proud to be there in your honor.

Juliana Francisco lives in Brooklyn and is an activist with IndependentVoting.org and the New York City Independence Clubs.  

 

Politics for the People Conference Call

With Ellen Feldman

TOMORROW

Sunday, January 22nd at 7 pm EST

Call In Number: 641 715-3605

Access code 767775#

New Selection–Terrible Virtue

p4p_bookclub_flyer_feldman

 

MacArthur Genius Comes to P4P

Our next selection is a first for P4P on two counts: Our first guest who is a MacArthur Genius Award Winner.  And our first photo book!

Our next selection is the award winning The Notion Of Family by LaToya Ruby Frazier. The book is a powerful exploration of LaToya’s hometown of Braddock PA, the home of the first Carnegie steel mill which opened in 1875.

The Notion of Family

The book powerfully takes the viewer into LaToya’s family and hometown.  In the video she made after receiving the MacArthur Foundation 2015 Genius Award, LaToya says three things I wanted to share as we get ready to examine her book:

I make work that deals with the intersection of the steel industry, environmental racism and the health care crisis.

There aren’t many stories about African American families from Braddock.  There’s no recognition paid to the labor and the lives that were given to the factory and the town.

I think that it’s important to use the camera when you’re dealing with these things that we erase, and avoid and pretend that aren’t there.  It’ s my job and duty to be a witness to what’s happening.

Give a look and listen to this video of LaToya talking about The Notion of Family and her reaction to receiving the MacArthur Foundation Grant.

(It you do not see the video screen, you can view it through this link.)

LaToya Ruby Frazier’s profile from the MacArthur Foundation is at the end of the post.   You can get a copy of The Notion of Family directly from the publisher, Aperture.

Politics for the People Conference Call

With LaToya Ruby Frazier

Sunday, December 6th at 7 pm EST

 CALL IN NUMBER

641 715-3605

Code 767775#

 

 

MACARTHUR FELLOWS / MEET THE CLASS OF 2015

Meet the 2015 MacArthur Fellows

These 24 delightfully diverse MacArthur Fellows are shedding light and making progress on critical issues, pushing the boundaries of their fields, and improving our world in imaginative, unexpected ways,” said MacArthur President Julia Stasch. “Their work, their commitment, and their creativity inspire us all.

LaToya Ruby Frazier

Photographer and Video Artist

Assistant Professor, Department of Photography

School of the Art Institute of Chicago

Chicago, Illinois

Age: 33

Published September 28, 2015

The Notion of Familya series of unflinching black-and-white photographs, shows her mother, grandmother, and the artist herself in a Braddock unmoored by disinvestment and demographic decline. Frazier’s stark portraits underscore the connection between self and physical space and make visible the consequences of neglect and abandonment—unemployment, environmental health crises, and lack of access to services—for Braddock’s historically marginalized working-class African American community. In a photolithograph and silkscreen print series from 2011, entitled Campaign for Braddock Hospital (“Save Our Community Hospital”), Frazier sets up an ironic juxtaposition between upbeat consumer capitalism and the challenges of working people. Images of Braddock from a 2010 Levi Strauss campaign bearing the slogan “Ready to Work” are set in counterpoint to quotes from Braddock residents about the closure of the town’s only hospital—and its principal employer—that same year.

In more recent photographic work, Frazier documents Braddock from the skies in full-color aerial shots that record the extensive transformations of a community after years of economic collapse. Frazier’s uncompromising and moving work illustrates how contemporary photography can open conversations about American history, class structures, and social responsibility.
LaToya Ruby Frazier received a B.F.A. (2004) from Edinboro University of Pennsylvania and an M.F.A. (2007) from Syracuse University. She held artist residencies at the Lower Manhattan Culture Council (2009–2010) and the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program (2010–2011) and was the Guna S. Mundheim Fellow at the American Academy in Berlin (2013–2014) before assuming her current position as assistant professor in the Department of Photography at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Frazier’s work has appeared in numerous exhibitions, including solo shows at the Brooklyn Museum, the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, the Seattle Art Museum, and the Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston. The Notion of Family, Frazier’s first book, was published in 2014.

– See more at: https://www.macfound.org/fellows/937/#sthash.6Dp70TiR.dpuf

Book Selection Revealed

It is with great excitement that I announce our next book club selection.

THE WARMTH OF OTHER SUNS by Isabel Wilkerson.

I was first introduced to the book back in 2010 by Dr. Susan Massad, a P4P book club regular.  I could not put it down!  The book is a brilliant and compelling look at the Great Migration by over 6 million African Americans fleeing the rural South to the cities of the North, Midwest and West from 1916 to 1970 in search of a better life.

Isabel Wilkerson will be participating in our book club conference call on Sunday, July 13th at 7 pm EST.

You can order your copy at Amazon, or any other bookseller of your choice.

Here is a description of the book from Isabel’s website:

NATIONAL BOOK CRITICS CIRCLE AWARD WINNER

NEW YORK TIMES BEST SELLER

A BEST BOOK OF THE YEAR: The New York Times, USA Today, The New Yorker, Los Angeles Times, Washington Post, Chicago Tribune, The Economist, Boston Globe, Newsday, Salon and many others

In a story of hope and longing, three young people set out from the American South during different decades of the 20th Century en route to the North and West in search of what the novelist Richard Wright called “the warmth of other suns.”

Ida Mae Brandon Gladney, George Swanson Starling and Robert Joseph Pershing Foster are among the six million African-Americans who fled the South during what would become known as the Great Migration, a watershed in American history. This book interweaves their stories and those of others who made the journey with the larger forces and inner motivations that compelled them to flee, and with the challenges they confronted upon arrival in the New World.

 

 

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